ISBN 9789382573470. ^ a b Larsen 1983, p. 13. ^ Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren, Historical Researches Into the Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Principal Nations of Antiquity, Henry Bohn, 1854 p38 ^ Arnold Heeren, ibid, p441 ^ Potts, D. T., in: Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms: Studies in Ancient Arabian Monetization, Huth, Martin, and van Alfen, Peter G., (editors), Numismatic studies, The American Numismatic Society, New York, 2010, p. 36 ^ W. B. Fisher et al. The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press 1968 p40 ^ Ju.
 In 2004, Bahrain signed the Bahrain–US Free Trade Agreement, which will reduce certain trade barriers between the two nations.  In 2011, due to the combination of the global financial crisis and the recent unrest, its GDP growth rate decreased to 1. 3%, which was the lowest growth rate since 1994.  Access to biocapacity in Bahrain is much lower than world average. In 2016, Bahrain had 0. 52 global hectares  of biocapacity per person within its territory, much less than the world average of 1. 6 global hectares per person.  In 2016 Bahrain used 8. 6 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint of consumption.
 The many islands and shallow seas of Bahrain are globally important for the breeding of the Socotra cormorant; up to 100, 000 pairs of these birds were recorded over the Hawar Islands.  Bahrain's national bird is the bulbul while its national animal is the Arabian oryx. And the national flower of Bahrain is the beloved Deena. Only 18 species of mammals are found in Bahrain, animals such as gazelles, desert rabbits and hedgehogs are common in the wild but the Arabian oryx was hunted to extinction on the island.  Twenty-five species of amphibians and reptiles were recorded as well as 21 species of butterflies and 307 species of flora.  The marine biotopes are diverse and include extensive sea grass beds and mudflats, patchy coral reefs as well as offshore islands. Sea grass beds are important foraging grounds for some threatened species such as dugongs and the green turtle.
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 The University of Bahrain had over 20, 000 students in 2014, 65% of whom are women, and around 900 faculty members, 40% of whom are women. From 1986 to 2014, university staff published 5, 500 papers and books. The university spent about US$11 million per year on research in 2014, which was conducted by a contingent of 172 men and 128 women. Women thus made up 43% of researchers at the University of Bahrain in 2014.  Bahrain was one of 11 Arab states which counted a majority of female university graduates in science and engineering in 2014.
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The 2011 Bahraini uprising, inspired by the Arab Spring, ended in a bloody crackdown against the mainly Shiite demonstrators who had demanded an elected government, threatening the Sunni monarchy's grip on power. Bahrain assailed the movement as an Iranian plot, and banned opposition parties, put civilians in front of military courts and jailed dozens of peaceful political opponents, eliciting harsh international criticism.  "Ten years after Bahrain's popular uprising, systemic injustice has intensified and political repression targeting dissidents, human rights defenders, clerics and independent civil society have effectively shut any space for the peaceful exercise of the right to freedom of expression or peaceful activism", Amnesty International said in a statement.  Bahrain remains militarily and financially dependent on Saudi Arabia and the UAE and there is little on the frontier of regime change.
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Clive Holes. pp. XIX. ISBN 9004107630. ^ a b EB (1911). ^ "Qal'at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun". UNESCO. Retrieved 5 October 2012. ^ Larsen, Curtis E. (1984). Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society. University of Chicago Press. pp. 52–55. ISBN 978-0-226-46906-5. ^ "Concise History of Islam". Concise History of Islam. 14 September 2011.
^ First encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936. 1993. p. 584. ISBN 978-90-04-09796-4. ^ "Bahrain Human Development Report 2018" (PDF). Bahrain Human Development Report 2018. ^ a b c d Rentz, G. "al- Baḥrayn". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 15 March 2008 [permanent dead link] ^ Holes, Clive (2001). Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary.
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 Currently there are three modern bridges connecting the two locations.  Transits between the two islands peaked after the construction of the Bahrain International Airport in 1932.  Ring roads and highways were later built to connect Manama to the villages of the Northern Governorate and towards towns in central and southern Bahrain. The four main islands and all the towns and villages are linked by well-constructed roads. There were 3, 164 km (1, 966 mi) of roadways in 2002, of which 2, 433 km (1, 512 mi) were paved. A causeway stretching over 2. 8 km (2 mi), connect Manama with Muharraq Island, and another bridge joins Sitra to the main island.
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